The DNS problem which was an natd problem

The DNS problem which was an natd problem

By this time, I’d been down and now I was getting up again.  After nearly
trashing the entire system, only to have placed gently back into my hands by a total
stranger, I was ready to tackle the other problem.  That was my DNS problem.  Or
what I, as a novice, thought was a DNS problem.  It turned out not to be a routing
problem.   For information on DNS, see Getting local names
to resolve
.

The symptoms were pings that worked everywhere on my subnet, but I could
only ping out from the FreeBSD box.  This was confusing.  Again, the folks on
EFnet IRC Network #freebsd asked me the right questions.

The first thing was to get natd running in verbose mode.  So I issued the
following commands:

killall natd
natd -v interface ed0

I then started up NT2 and connected the FreeBSD box up to my ISP.  Then I used NT1
to dial up my ISP via modem.  This way I could still chat on IRC and debug my
firewall.  And I could use NT2 to verify that things were going right.

SOAB!  It worked.  How come?  All we had done was restart natd.  
The next step was to reboot the machine and try again.  It didn’t work.   So I
stopped and restarted natd.  It worked.  IRC server connections from NT1 and NT2
worked.  Something was very weird.

At the end of /etc/rc.local was the following  (NOTE:  /etc/rc.local
is deprecated; use /usr/local/etc/rc.d/ instead; see Starting
stuff at boot time
and Installing IP
Filter
3.3.3
for an example):

natd -interface ed0
dhclient ed0
ifconfig ed1 inet 10.0.0.10 255.255.255.0

I started reading up on natd (please, no laughing).  I found the -dynamic
flag, which I had not been previously using.  So I added it to the command and
rebooted.

Shutdown now!

It was about this time that I was introduced to the shutdown command.  This lovely
command has some nice side-effect.  Instead of rebooting, you can just restart the
system.  As root (or as a super user [su]), issue the shutdown now command.  
When you get back to to prompt in single user mode, type control-D.  The system will
restart.  A great time saver.

DNS solved

After several tests, I concluded that the problem is solved by having:

natd -dynamic -interface ed0

For some reason, as yet unexplained to me, the dynamic flag is now needed for natd.

FWIW: I changed the /etc/rc.local file to contain
(NOTE:  /etc/rc.local is deprecated; use /usr/local/etc/rc.d/
instead; see Starting stuff at boot time and Installing IP Filter 3.3.3 for an
example):

natd -f /etc/natd.conf
dhclient ed0
ifconfig ed1 inet 10.0.0.10 255.255.255.0

and in /etc/natd.conf I have:

interface ed0
dynamic yes

Why this wasn’t a DNS problem

This wasn’t a DNS problem.  It was a routing problem.  DNS is a service.
  It is not essential to the operation of a sub-net.  DNS provides something
extra.  Communcations can exist without names.  Names are for people.  
Computers use IP numbers, not names.  DNS allows computers to translate the names we
assign to those numbers.

The problem was that I could not ping machines outside the
firewall from within the firewall.  This was because traffic was not being sent to
the outside world from within the sub-net.  Once I solved the routing problem, the
pings started to work.

8 August 1998

I have changed the /etc/rc.local file to contain (NOTE:  /etc/rc.local
is deprecated; use /usr/local/etc/rc.d/ instead; see Starting
stuff at boot time
and Installing IP
Filter
3.3.3
for an example):

dhclient ed0
ifconfig ed1 inet 10.0.0.10 255.255.255.0
natd -f /etc/natd.conf

I found that my original configuration caused a problem
on reboot.  The message displayed during the boot process was:

natd: Unknown interface name ed0.  (No such file or directory).

The above configuration ensures that ed0 and ed1 are properly configured before I
attempt to start natd.

1 thought on “The DNS problem which was an natd problem”

  1. Why it needs -dynamic is simple : natd must translate private IP addresses to the public IP address. So, natd must KNOW what your public IP is.
    natd looks at the interface IP address when it starts. So, if your start dhclient after natd, the address will change. And if your dhcp lease expires, your address will change too. So you must tell natd to look for IP address changes on your public interface.

    -dynamic If the -n or -interface option is used, natd will monitor the
    routing socket for alterations to the interface passed. If
    the interface’s IP address is changed, natd will dynamically
    alter its concept of the alias address.

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